The History of Hydrogen: From Elemental Discovery to Medical Marvel

The History of Hydrogen: From Elemental Discovery to Medical Marvel

The history of hydrogen is a fascinating journey that takes us from its discovery as an elemental gas to its current application in the field of medicine.
The story of hydrogen starts almost half a millennium ago and continues to be written today as researchers explore its vast potential.

In the early 16th century, Philippus Aureolus Paracelsus, a Swiss physician and alchemist, made an inadvertent discovery of hydrogen during an experiment involving acid and metal. He observed a peculiar flammable gas as a byproduct, which was nothing like he'd ever seen before.

Fast forward to the mid-18th century, the British philosopher and scientist, Henry Cavendish, officially distinguished this mysterious gas as flammable air that forms water upon combustion. However, it wasn't until 1783 that this gas was given its official name. Antoine Lavoisier, often referred to as the 'father of modern chemistry,' introduced the term “hydrogene.” Derived from the Greek words "hydro" meaning water and "gene" meaning to create or form, hydrogen essentially means "water-forming."

However, it wasn't until the late 19th century that the link between hydrogen and medicine began to be explored. In 1888, the Annals of Surgery made mention of Dr. Nicolas Senn's work, who was using H2 (hydrogen gas) for intestinal applications. This was one of the first recorded instances of hydrogen's application in medicine.

Hydrogen's application extended beyond medicine in the mid-20th century. In 1943, Arne Zetterstrom, a Swedish engineer, first used hydrogen gas for deep-sea diving. The U.S. Navy adopted this approach in the 1960s, using a hydrogen gas mixture known as Hydreliox to mitigate decompression sickness. The Navy's usage also demonstrated the high safety profile of hydrogen.

The turn of the century brought about an increased interest in the medical application of hydrogen. In 2007, a groundbreaking article published in Nature Medicine explained how H2 works to selectively neutralize cytotoxic oxygen radicals, or more commonly known as the hydroxyl radical. This breakthrough sparked a surge in hydrogen research, leading to over 600 published studies and reviews about its potential medicinal use.

Countries in Asia, such as Japan, China, and Korea, rapidly embraced this new medical marvel. Numerous clinics started offering hydrogen therapy for patients with chronic diseases, seeing remarkable results. In the U.S., hydrogen has primarily been used as a supplement, but research indicates a promising future for its medical applications.

Today, the application of hydrogen in medicine is continuously expanding. Hydrogen inhalation was approved as an advanced medical treatment for Post-Cardiac Arrest Syndrome (PCAS) by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in 2016. Various organizations have also been established to regulate and educate about hydrogen's therapeutic use, such as the Molecular Hydrogen Institute and the International Hydrogen Standards Association.

The story of hydrogen is far from over. With more than 1500 scientific studies on hydrogen as a medical gas and a rapidly growing therapeutic hydrogen industry worldwide, the future is bright for this elemental gas. As research continues, hydrogen’s potential to treat a variety of chronic diseases and conditions becomes increasingly apparent, making it not just an elemental gas, but a true medical marvel.